The sexual sense is a modern innovation rarely attested in older writing. In modern usage, the unaccompanied word penetrate and its derivatives often refer to sexual penetration, outside of certain set phrases such as market penetration.
Methods and results: The colon mucus layer from mice deficient in Muc2 mucin, Core 1 O-glycans, Tlr5, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Slc9a3 (Nhe3) together with that from dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice was immunostained for Muc2, and bacterial localisation in the mucus was analysed. All murine colitis models revealed bacteria in contact with the epithelium. Additional analysis of the less inflamed IL-10(-/-) mice revealed a thicker mucus layer than wild-type, but the properties were different, as the inner mucus layer could be penetrated both by bacteria in vivo and by fluorescent beads the size of bacteria ex vivo. Clear separation between bacteria or fluorescent beads and the epithelium mediated by the inner mucus layer was also evident in normal human sigmoid colon biopsy samples. In contrast, mucus on colon biopsy specimens from patients with UC with acute inflammation was highly penetrable. Most patients with UC in remission had an impenetrable mucus layer similar to that of controls.
Conclusions: Normal human sigmoid colon has an inner mucus layer that is impenetrable to bacteria. The colon mucus in animal models that spontaneously develop colitis and in patients with active UC allows bacteria to penetrate and reach the epithelium. Thus colon mucus properties can be modulated, and this suggests a novel model of UC pathophysiology.
Penetrating abdominal trauma is seen in many countries. The most common cause is a stab or gunshot. The most common organs injured are the small bowel (50%), large bowel (40%), liver (30%), and intra-abdominal vascular (25%). When the injury is close range, there is more kinetic energy than those injuries sustained from a distance. Even though most gunshot wounds typically have a linear projection, high-energy wounds are associated with unpredictable injuries. There may also be secondary missile injuries from bone or bullet fragments. Stab wounds that penetrate the abdominal wall are difficult to assess. Occult injuries can be missed, resulting in delayed complications that can add to the morbidity.
The mortality rate from penetrating abdominal trauma depends on the organ involved, time to therapy, and how many other organs are involved. The literature reveals mortality rates from 0-100%. The lowest mortality is in patients who sustain just a superficial injury to the abdominal wall but if the injury penetrated the peritoneum and is associated with hypotension, acidosis, and hypothermia, the mortality rates are more than 50%. The mortality is greatest in those who suffer a concomitant vascular injury of the abdominal vessels. When the patient is brought promptly to a trauma center, a 5% mortality rate can be expected. The majority of deaths occur within the first 24 hours of injury. Risk factors that predict mortality include female gender, the presence of shock on arrival, delay in treatment, and associated head injury. Firearms are usually associated with much higher morbidity and mortality compared to knife wounds. [Level 5]
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Study overview. One-hundred nanometer liposomes were evaluated for their capacity to deliver active agricultural ingredients to fully grown crops, after being applied foliarly. The liposomes penetrated the leaves and translocated to the entire body of the plant - roots and leaves, releasing their payload inside the cells. This approach was then used to supplement plant growth and overcome acute nutrient deficiency.
Here, we demonstrated the capacity of 100-nm soy-based liposomes, through single-leaflet application, to penetrate and distribute to the whole plant. Distribution and payload delivery was examined both qualitatively and quantitatively.
The aphotic zone exists in depths below 1,000 meters. Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is bathed in darkness. The aphotic zone is further subdivided into the bathypelagic zone (or midnight zone) between 1,000 and 4,000 meters, the abyssopelagic (or the abyss) between 4,000 and 6,000 meters, and the hadopelagic zone (or hadal zone) 6,000 meters and deeper.
GAO discussed the intrusions of Dutch hackers into Department of Defense (DOD) unclassified, sensitive computer systems during Operation Desert Storm/Shield. GAO noted that: (1) computer hackers from the Netherlands penetrated 34 DOD sites attached to Internet, an unclassified network composed of smaller networks nationwide and overseas, between April 1990 and May 1991; (2) the hackers had access to unclassified, sensitive information regarding military personnel, logistics, and weapons systems development data, which can be highly sensitive during times of international conflict; (3) the hackers generally gained access to the DOD computer systems by weaving their way on Internet through university, government, and commercial systems; (4) the most common weaknesses hackers exploited to gain access into military sites were accounts with easily guessed passwords, well-known security holes in computer operating systems, and vendor-supplied accounts; (5) the majority of the hackers' activities were aimed at modifying the system to obtain system administrator privileges and to create new privileged accounts and establish methods for later entry; and (6) in most cases a university, contractor, or DOD official notified system administrators of an intrusion which prompted them to either secure their system or temporarily leave the vulnerability open to determine the intruder's identity. GAO believes that: (1) security weaknesses that permitted the intrusions highlight inadequate DOD attention to computer security; and (2) poor password management, failure to maintain audit trails, and inadequate computer security training all contributed to the intrusions.
1630s, "touching the feelings intensely," figurative present-participle adjective from penetrate (v.). It was used earlier in a literal sense (early 15c.). The sense of "acute, discerning, quick to discover or recognize" is from 1670s. An earlier adjective was penetrative (late 14c., penetratif), in reference to medicines, from Medieval Latin penetrativus. Related: Penetratingly.
Ocular penetrating and perforating injuries (commonly referred to as open globe injuries) can result in severe vision loss or loss of the eye. Penetrating injuries by definition penetrate into the eye but not through and through--there is no exit wound. Perforating injuries have both entrance and exit wounds. Typically, to constitute one of these injuries, a full-thickness rupture of the cornea and/or sclera must be present. Open globe rupture, in contrast, refers to blunt injury of the eye causing globe collapse. This typically occurs at the limbus and near the equator behind the recti muscles insertions, where the sclera is thinnest. The injury is further classified based on three zones: I, II, and III. Zone I involves the cornea and limbus, Zone II involves the sclera 5mm anterior to the ora serrata that does not extend into the retina, and Zone III refers to any injury posterior to the ora serrata that involves the retina.
An earth-penetrating weapon (EPW) is designed to hit the earth at high speed and penetrate into the ground before exploding. Such weapons can be delivered by short-range missiles or aircraft, and are intended primarily to attack underground targets.
An EPW only burrows a few meters into the ground before it explodes. Indeed, the earth slows the warhead so quickly on impact that it cannot penetrate very deeply. Rather, by exploding just a few meters underground instead of at or above the surface, a much larger fraction of the energy of the explosion is transmitted to the ground. The explosion creates a strong seismic shock wave that propagates and can crush or damage an underground bunker.
Radioactive Fallout from a Nuclear EPWA commonly held fallacy is that an earth-penetrating nuclear weapon can penetrate deep enough so that the nuclear explosion and radiation is contained underground. This is not the case.
The United States currently deploys both conventional and nuclear earth-penetrating weapons. The two largest conventional EPWs (called GBU-28 and GBU-37) use the same body but different guidance systems.8 The bodies are long tubes, a third of a meter (14.5 inches) in diameter and four meters (12.8 feet) long, that weigh over two tons and contain nearly 300 kilograms (630 pounds) of high explosive. Both are dropped from aircraft, and tests have shown they can penetrate six meters of concrete or 30 meters of earth. The GBU-28 is laser guided and the GBU-37 is guided by the Global Positioning System, which reportedly makes it more accurate than the GBU-28 and allows it to operate under all weather conditions. Very high accuracy increases the ability of these weapons to destroy shallow hardened targets with known locations (such as missile silos) but not deeply buried targets.9
In the 1980s the United States developed and tested but did not deploy a nuclear EPW intended for the intermediate-range Pershing II missile. This warhead, called the W86, was also a modification of the B61.15 It was about two meters long and 0.2 meters in diameter, and could penetrate less than 10 meters of granite or hardened concrete.16 The main mission of this weapon was to crater runways rather than attack buried targets. 041b061a72